Election Information
2006 General Election
Initiative, Referendum and Recall Applications
Last updated on August 15, 2006 at 09:32:06 AM
Janice K. Brewer
Unofficial
Petition
Serial
Number
Title /
Sponsor /
Description
Filer ID Appl.
Date
Due
Date
Signatures
Required
C-01-2006 AZ Minimum Wage Amendment 200602683 January 5, 2005 July 6, 2006 183,917
Five Fifteen Isn't Working C-01-2006
2818 North Campbell Avenue, Box 201
Tucson, AZ 85719
520/971-0332

Bob Schwartz, Chairman, Applicant
3002 North Campbell Avenue #100, Tucson AZ 85719
520/529-1515 or Phyllis Gold, Treasurer, 520/298-2707

Official Title: Arizona Minimum Wage Amendment
Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the State of Arizona amending Article 18 by adding Section 11--Minimum Wage--setting a minimum wage of $5.95 per hour, effective July 1, 2007, to be raised to $6.75 per hour on July 1, 2008 and thereafter to be adjusted for inflation each year; raising the minimum wage of "tipped employees"; providing for civil enforcement of the minimum wage; and authorizing the Legislature to establish remedies for violation of the minimum wage and to adopt such other statutes and regulations for implementation and enforcement.
C-02-2006 Protect Marriage Arizona 200602711 May 16, 2005 July 6, 2006 183,917
Protect Marriage Arizona
10645 North Tatum Blvd., Ste. 200-641
Phoenix, AZ 85028
602-978-0737

D. Brad Frese, Applicant
Lynn Stanley, Chairman

Bob Semple, Treasurer
2700 North Central Avenue, Ninth Floor
Phoenix, AZ 85004
602-241-1500
This proposed amendment to the Arizona Constitution preserves marriage as only consisting of the union of one man and one woman, and prohibits the state and its political subdivisions from creating or recognizing any legal status for unmarried persons that is similar to that of marriage.
C-03-2006 Conserving Arizona's Future 200202438 July 19, 2005 July 6, 2006 183,917
Conserving Arizona's Future
4000 N. Central Ave., Suite 1600
Phoenix, AZ 85012
602-264-1774
Penny A. Kotterman, Applicant
480-460-4544
Pat Graham, Chairman
602-322-6990
John H. Wright, III, Treasurer
602-264-1774
Conserving Arizona's Future is a simple and straight forward reform that will conserve and protect approximately 690,000 acres of some of the most important natural areas in Arizona. For the first time, state trust land will be permanently set aside for conservation purposes protecting more of Arizona's land and water for future generations. The initiative will also protect and guarantee an essential classroom funding stream through improved planning and management of state trust lands, require local communities to cooperate in the planning and development of trust lands, and provide local authorities the power to limit and control development.
C-04-2006 Arizona Tax Revolt 200602757 February 16, 2006 July 6, 2006 183,917
Arizona Tax Revolt
4090 Yucca Street
Bullhead City, AZ 86429
928-754-8305
Marc Goldstone, Applicant & Chairman

Mary Bonaventura, Treasurer
1913 Richardo Avenue
Bullhead City, AZ 86442
928-704-1822
REFILED AS C-05-2006 DUE TO CHANGES IN THE TEXT
C-05-2006 Arizona Tax Revolt 200602757 April 11, 2006 July 6, 2006 183,917
Arizona Tax Revolt
4090 Yucca Street
Bullhead City, AZ 86429
928-754-8305
Marc Goldstone, Applicant & Chairman
This is the Arizona TAX Revolt 'PROPERTY TAX ROLLBACK' proposition by and for the PEOPLE of Arizona, NOT THE LEGISLATURE. Like California's famous proposition 13, this measure ELIMINATES tax increases on your home just because your neighbors sold a home at an inflated price. All residential property starting with tax year 2007 will be rolled back to property tax paid in 2003, as adjusted for improvements. For more recent purchases the first tax bill after acquisition establishes your tax due. We all know that out of control government spending is the problem, and this is the solution.
C-06-2006 Stop Taxing Our Property Yes on C-06-2006 200602768 April 19, 2006 July 6, 2006 183,917
Stop Taxing Our Property Yes on C-06-2006
4340 E. Indian School Rd.
Phoenix, AZ 85018
602/690-4288

Jeff Greenspan, Chairman
602/690-4288
S. A. Everly, Co-Chairman
602/359-6799
REFILED AS C-08-2006 DUE TO CHANGE IN THE TEXT
C-07-2006 Stop Taxing Our Property Yes on C-07-2006 200602767 April 19, 2006 July 6, 2006 183,917
Stop Taxing Our Property Yes on C-07-2006
4340 E. Indian School Rd. #21-217
Phoenix, AZ 85018
602/690-4288

Jeff Greenspan, Chairman
602/690-4288
S. A. Everly, Co-Chairman
602/359-6799
REFILED AS C-09-2006 DUE TO CHANGE IN THE TEXT
HCR 2001 MUNICIPAL DEBT   June 22, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE IX, SECTION 8, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; RELATING TO MUNICIPAL DEBT.
HCR 2028 BAILABLE OFFENSES   May 12, 2005
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE II, SECTION 22, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; RELATING TO BAILABLE OFFENSES.
HCR 2036 ENGLISH AS THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE   June 22, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; REPEALING ARTICLE XXVIII, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA BY ADDING A NEW ARTICLE XXVIII; RELATING TO ENGLISH AS THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE.
HCR 2045 STATE TRUST LANDS; PROVIDING FOR CONDITIONAL REPEAL AND CONDITIONAL ENACTMENT   June 22, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE X, SECTIONS 3 AND 4, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE X, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA, BY ADDING SECTIONS 4.1, 4.2 AND 4.3; RELATING TO STATE TRUST LANDS; PROVIDING FOR CONDITIONAL REPEAL AND CONDITIONAL ENACTMENT.
HCR 2056 LOCAL PROPERTY TAX LEVIES   June 21, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE IX, SECTION 19, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; RELATING TO LOCAL PROPERTY TAX LEVIES.
SCR 1001 STANDING IN CIVIL ACTIONS   June 22, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA; AMENDING ARTICLE II, CONSTITUTION OF ARIZONA, BY ADDING SECTION 35; RELATING TO STANDING IN CIVIL ACTIONS.
C-08-2006 Stop Taxing Our Property 200602767 April 27, 2006 July 6, 2006 183,917
Stop Taxing Our Property Yes on C-08-2006
4340 E. Indian School Rd. #21-217
Phoenix, Arizona 85018
Jeff Greenspan, Applicant & Chairman
602-690-4288
Lynne Weaver
602-953-1590
REDEFINING RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY TAX VALUATION IN THE ARIZONA CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE IX, SECTION 18.
THIS INITIATIVE CLEARLY REDEFINES HOW RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY IS VALUED FOR TAX PURPOSES. THE VALUATION BASELINE, WHEN THIS INITIATIVE PASSES, IS THE FULL CASH VALUE OF THE PROPERTY ON THE DATE OF PURCHASE IF PURCHASED AFTER 2001 OR THE FULL CASH VALUE OF THE PROPERTY IN 2001 AS PUBLISHED BY THE COUNTY ASSESSOR. THEREAFTER, THE BASELINE VALUE CANNOT BE INCREASED BY MORE THAN 2% PER YEAR.
C-09-2006 Stop Taxing Our Property 200602768 April 27, 2006 July 6, 2006 183,917
Stop Taxing Our Property Yes on C-09-2006
4340 E. Indian School Rd. #21-217
Phoenix, Arizona 85018
Jeff Greenspan, Applicant & Chairman
602-690-4288
Lynne Weaver
602-953-1590
Reinforcing Residential Property Tax Limits in The Arizona Constitution, Article IX, Sections 18 and 19.

This initiative, when it passes, reinforces the 1% limit on the residential property tax rate, by removing exceptions to that limit.
I-01-2006 AZ Voter Reward Act 200402557 February 7, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizonans for Voter Rewards I-01-2006
P.O. Box 35037
Tucson, AZ 85740
520/886-6326
Mark Osterloh, Applicant and Chairman

Ethel Rocco, Treasurer
520/544-9011


This law will establish a voter reward random drawing every two years with a first prize of one million dollars or more. The purpose is to increase voter participation. Voters who cast ballots in primary or general elections will be eligible to win. The money will come from the Arizona Lottery and private donations.
I-02-2006 No More Plea Bargains   February 8, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Applicant
Joel K. Barr 180015
SMU 1 P.O. Box 4000
Florence, AZ 85232
520/868-0201

The purpose of the NO MORE PLEA BARGAINS initiative is to ensure the guilty do not avoid appropriate mandatory sentences by pleading guilty to lesser crimes; and innocent people are no longer coerced into signing false confessions. False confessions harm the innocent, protect the guilty, insult victims, defeat the purpose of mandatory sentencing, and defraud taxpayers. The text of the NO MORE PLEA BARGAINS initiative is as follows: "Every person accused of violating any law of the State of Arizona shall stand trial on every charge. No information, complaint, or indictment may be withdrawn or dismissed prior to its trial."
I-03-2006 Taxation of Decriminalized Marijuana   February 18, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Applicant
Joel K. Barr 180015
SMU 1 P.O. Box 4000
Florence, AZ 85232


This initiative's purpose is to provide supplemental funds for prescription medication for the retired; 24/7/365 daycare for single working parents and more.

It shall not be unlawful to possess marijuana. Every transaction wherein marijuana is sold or traded shall be taxed twenty-five percent added to its transaction price or fair market value. The tax shall be collected by the seller on behalf of the Department of Revenue and shall be deposited into the state's general fund. Failure by the seller to pay this tax in a timely manner shall be punishable by law to be enacted by the legislature.
I-04-2006 No Taxpayer Money for Lobbyists Act 200602716 June 7, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
No Taxpayer Money for Lobbyists Committee in Support of I-04-2006
8106 East Broadway Road
Mesa, AZ 85208
480-834-0021

Kenneth Bond
Chairman/Applicant
480-834-0021

Janeva A. Hubbert
Treasurer
480-357-9753
This act shall be called: No Taxpayer Money for Lobbyists Act. No covered person shall use time or other resources for lobbying. The law making process shall be limited to the legislative branch of governments and the people. Covered persons shall respond to requests for information but shall not lobby.
I-05-2006 Smoke-Free Arizona Act 200602732 August 31, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Smoke-Free Arizona Yes on I-05-2006
2929 South 48th Street
Tempe, Arizona 85282
602/414-5339

Bill Pfeifer, Chairman and Applicant
John Rivers, Treasurer
The Smoke-Free Arizona Act protects the right of Arizonans to breathe clean indoor air by prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places and places of employment. Breathing second hand smoke harms children, seniors and people with existing health problems the most. Enforcement by the Arizona Department of Health Services will be paid for by a tax on cigarettes of one tenth of one cent per cigarette. Limited exceptions are provided such as private residences, retail tobacco stores, and outdoor patios. No smoking signs will be posted in all areas where smoking is prohibited.
I-06-2006 Humane Treatment of Farm Animals Act 200602729 September 6, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizonans for Humane Farms (AHS, ADLA, HSUS, Farm Sanctuary) in Support of I-06-2006
P.O. Box 3095
Tempe, AZ 85280
480/449-7644

REFILED AS I-07-2006 ON 10-06-2005 DUE TO CHANGE IN TEXT

I-07-2006 Humane Treatment of Farm Animals Act 200602729 October 6, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizonans for Humane Farms (AHS, ADLA, HSUS, Farm Sanctuary) in Support of I-07-2006
P. O. Box 3075
Tempe, AZ 85280
480/449-7644

Cheryl Naumann, Chairman
Arizona citizens are concerned about the cruel and inhumane treatment of animals; the Humane Treatment of Farm Animals Act, recommended by the Arizona Humane Society and The Humane Society of the United States, requires that pigs during pregnancy and calves raised for veal must be given sufficient space to turn around, lie down, and fully extend their limbs when tethered, or confined in crates, cages, or other enclosures; includes exceptions, such as for veterinary purposes and during the pig's prebirthing period; the Act allows six years to adopt more humane practices and does not require mandatory expenditure of state revenues.
I-08-2006 First Class Education for Arizona 200602734 October 19, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
First Class Education for Arizona
8106 E. Broadway Rd.
Mesa, AZ 85208
602/524-2241

Randall Pullen, Chairman/Applicant

REFILED AS I-10-2006 ON 11/07/2005 DUE TO CHANGE IN TEXT
I-09-2006 Citizens Against Stupid Taxes 200602738 October 27, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Citizens Against Stupid Taxes
935 East Lehi Road
Mesa, AZ 85203
480-610-0051

Curtis Royer, Applicant/Chairman
The general purpose of this Initiative is to eliminate, to the greatest extent possible, the inane practice of using tax money to pay taxes. Therefore, this initiative prohibits public schools, colleges, universities, and governmental agencies from paying state or local taxes, and grants tax-exempt status on all purchases for those organizations and agencies, whereby vendors who transact business with any of these entities will not be responsible for any taxes on those transactions.
Tax supported private organizations, such as charter schools, are not covered by the provisions of this initiative.
I-10-2006 First Class Education for Arizona 200602734 November 7, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
First Class Education for Arizona
8106 E. Broadway Rd.
Mesa, AZ 85208
602/524-2241

Randall Pullen, Chairman/Applicant
In an effort to achieve better educational results and ensure the best use of education taxpayer funding, First Class Education for Arizona requires public school districts in Arizona to spend at least 65% of their annual operating budget on classroom instruction. A public school district that does not spend at least 65% of its budget on classroom instruction expenditures in fiscal year 2006-2007 shall increase the percentage of its budget that it spends on classroom instruction by at least 2% each subsequent year until the public school district spends at least 65% of its budget on classroom instruction expenditures.
I-11-2006 Your Right to Vote 200402667 November 10, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Your Right to Vote
1931 Hwy 95
Bullhead City, AZ 86403
602/697-0891

Rick L. Murphy, Applicant and Chairman
928/704-7272
Chris Rolauno, Treasurer
928/855-4560
The single purpose of this initiative is to ensure that all registered voters are automatically mailed ballots from the election official before every election. Automatically mailed ballots shall be in proper form for voting, have all necessary instructions and shall be accompanied by a postage paid first class return envelope to the election official. A limited number of county-wide polling places shall remain open on election days for on site voting and for voters to return of automatically mailed ballots.
I-12-2006 AZ Minimum Wage Coalition 200602741 November 16, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizona Minimum Wage Coalition Yes on I-12-2006
2800 N. Central Ave., Ste. 1000
Phoenix, AZ 85004
480/784-4890

Rebekeh Friend, Chair
602/631-4488

Sarah Markey, Treasurer
602/254-5299
REFILED AS I-13-2006 DUE TO CHANGE IN THE TEXT
I-13-2006 Arizona Minimum Wage Coalition 200602741 November 18, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizona Minimum Wage Coalition Yes on I-13-2006
2800 N. Central Ave., Ste. 1000
Phoenix, AZ 85004
480/784-4890

Rebekeh Friend, Chair
602/631-4488

Sarah Markey, Treasurer
602/254-5299
The Raise the Minimum Wage for Working Arizonans Act increases the minimum wage to $6.75 an hour for working Arizonans starting in 2007. So that Arizona workers continue to receive fair paychecks that keep up with inflation, the Arizona minimum wage will then be adjusted one time each year to keep pace with the cost-of-living. The initiative applies the Arizona minimum wage law statewide because in Arizona no fulltime worker should get a wage so low that they live in poverty.
I-14-2006 Public Safety 101 200602746 December 1, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Public Safety 101 Supporting I-14-2006
3653 N. 6th Ave., #9C
Phoenix, AZ 85013
602/274-0826

Wm "Broom" Hall, Applicant and Chairman
602/274-0826
Miriam Berg, Treasurer

REFILED AS I-15-2006 DUE TO CHANGE IN THE TEXT
I-15-2006 Public Safety 101 200602746 December 5, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Public Safety 101 Supporting I-15-2006
3653 N. 6th Ave., #9C
Phoenix, AZ 85013
602/274-0826

William H. Hall, Applicant and Chairman
602/274-0826
Miriam Berg, Treasurer

To enact state legislation requiring that all registered vehicles undergo an annual safety inspection to assure compliance with all vehicle safety law, codes and ordinances.
I-16-2006 First Things First for Arizona's Children 200402605 December 7, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
First Things First for Arizona's Children
P.O. Box 34891
Phoenix, AZ 85067
602/266-5118

Nadine Mathis Basha, Applicant & Chairman
602/266-5118

Joshua J. Allen, Treasurer
928/525-2320

All Arizonans benefit from voluntary early childhood education. Children start school ready to succeed; parents are able to keep good jobs and earn highter incomes; and taxpayers save money because early childhood education lowers drop-out rates, reduces crime, and cuts the cost of social services. This initiative would increase funding for early childhood developement and health programs. Local councils who know their communities' needs would distribute the majority of the funding, with oversight by a statewide board subject to audits and other accountability measures. Dedicated funding would come from an increase on the sales price of tobacco products.
I-17-2006 Keep Arizona Free 200602748 December 20, 2005 July 6, 2006 122,612
Keep Arizona Free
P.O. Box 5001
Goodyear, Arizona 85338
623-205-2007

Eric Ulis, Chairman & Applicant

Marya Montoya, Treasurer
The Keep Arizona Free Act strikes a common sense balance between the concerns of non-smokers, smokers, business owners, and communities alike. It does this by protecting the private property right of small business owners to dictate whether smoking is allowed within their businesses and preserving local smoking ordinances already on the books. Businesses that provide a smoking section would be required to inform prospective customers and employees of this fact. The Keep Arizona Free Act preserves the right of local communities to enact stricter smoking ordinances. Furthermore, the Keep Arizona Free Act will not raise taxes or increase government bureaucracy.
I-18-2006 Voter Confidence in Elections Act 200602742 January 30, 2006 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizona Citizens for Election Reform
P.O. Box 17136
Phoenix, AZ 85011
602-697-5027

Carol J. Corsica, Applicant & Chair
602-750-3646
Daniel Erwin, Treasurer
602-799-1783
6819 N. 12th St. #14
Phoenix, AZ 85014
REFILED ON MARCH 13, 2006 AS I-20-2006 DUE TO CHANGE IN THE TEXT
I-19-2006 Private Property Rights Protection Act 200602759 February 23, 2006 July 6, 2006 122,612
AZ Home Owners Protection Effort (AZ-HOPE)
3431 W. Thunderbird, #302, Phoenix, AZ 85053
602-315-1737
Lori Klein, Applicant
623-218-6090
Carol Springer, Chairman
928-445-1363
John R. Norton, Treasurer
602-954-8812
REFILED ON MARCH 13, 2006 AS I-21-2006 DUE TO CHANGE IN THE TEXT
I-20-2006 Voter Confidence in Elections Act 200602742 March 13, 2006 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizona Citizens for Election Reform
P.O. Box 17136
Phoenix, AZ 85011
602/697-5027

Carol J. Corsica, Chairman
602/697-5027
Michael Shelby, Boardmember
602/430-3897

The Voter Confidence in Elections Act (VCEA) is needed to ensure that every vote in Arizona is counted. VCEA requires that all electronic voting systems provide a voter-verified durable paper ballot, that the ballot be securely preserved for 24 months, increases one of the recount triggers and requires that a hand count of randomly selected precincts be completed to verify accurate election results. If errors are found, the hand count will be extended as necessary and the hand count becomes the official count of the vote.
I-21-2006 Private Property Rights Protection Act 200602759 March 13, 2006 July 6, 2006 122,612
AZ Home Owners Protection Effort (AZ-HOPE)
3431 W. Thunderbird, #302, Phoenix, AZ 85053
602-315-1737
Lori Klein, Applicant
623-218-6090
Carol Springer, Chairman
928-445-1363
John R. Norton, Treasurer
602-954-8812
The Private Property Rights Protection Act is Arizona's response to the U.S. Supreme Court's decision allowing government to seize land for private commercial development. This Act protects private property by defining public use to mean only the public will own and use the land and declares that the public benefits of economic development, including increased tax revenues and employment, shall not constitute a public use. The Act ensures that Arizona citizens receive just compensation if they lose their property or lose the value of their property when government takes or enacts a law that diminishes the value of private property.
I-22-2006 Arizona Non-Smoker Protection Committee 200602777 May 24, 2006 July 6, 2006 122,612
Arizona Non-Smoker Protection Committee
PO Box 1145, Phoenix, AZ 85001
602-385-0471
Mark Anthony Desimone, Applicant & Chairman
602-235-9473
Fred Mallaire, Treasurer
602-285-1092
The Arizona Non-Smoker Protection Act creates a balanced, reasonable, consistent, statewide non-smoking law, protecting minors and preserving private property rights. The Act will not raise taxes or create new government programs. The Act would prohibit smoking in enclosed public places and places of employment, except bars and tobacco shops. Minors are not permitted in any part of a bar or tobacco shop that permits smoking. Signs must notify patrons and employees where smoking is permitted. If part of a larger business, the bars and tobacco shops must be separated by floor to ceiling partitions and separate ventilation systems.
SCR 1031 PUBLIC PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY   June 22, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
ENACTING AND ORDERING THE SUBMISSION TO THE PEOPLE OF A MEASURE RELATING TO PUBLIC PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY.
SCR 1033 PROBATION FOR METHAMPHETAMINE OFFENSES   June 22, 2006
Legislature
A CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
ENACTING AND ORDERING THE SUBMISSION TO THE PEOPLE OF A MEASURE RELATING TO PROBATION FOR METHAMPHETAMINE OFFENSES.
RC-01-2005 Recall Huppenthal 200602698 March 17, 2005 July 6, 2005 16,422
Recall Huppenthal Committee
337 South Los Feliz Drive
Chandler, AZ 85226
480/628-8068

Kim E. Andrade, Chairman
Len Gutman, Treasurer
State Senator John Huppenthal is out-of-touch with District 20 voters. He has consistently shown contempt and disregard for the best interests of District 20 residents, boldly supporting special interest legislation and demonstrating a blatant disregard for parents and children in the District. This disregard includes, but is not limited to: failing to support adequate funding for Kyrene and other public schools; voting against additional funding for full-day kindergarten; voting to allow patrons to carry guns into bars and restaurants that serve alcohol; voting to cut approximately $22 million from Community Colleges; voting to cut healthy family programs and child abuse prevention; voting to cut 100's of millions of dollars from cities used for vital services, such as police, fire and other public safety issues; voting to put cities in a position where they would have no choice but to impose an income tax on citizens to continue vital city services. These are just a few examples of John Huppenthal's actions misrepresenting the priorities of District 20 residents. It is time to hold John Huppenthal accountable for his actions and replace him with someone who supports our public schools, our familites and our children.